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            從“節女堂”想到“女德班”

            2018-02-27 13:28:09作者:張桂輝打印訂閱
            [導讀]時代不同了,社會進步了,對儒家理學等“歷史遺產”,既不能盲目拿來,更不能全盤照搬,而要“取其精華,去其糟粕”,在批判的基礎上繼承和吸收。



             

            “節女堂”,《現代漢語詞典》《辭海》等工具書,都找不到“芳。幾年前,收看電視連續劇《刀客家族的女人》后,才知道世間真有節女堂的。

            前些日子,我在閩北山區采風時,“意外”發現一處節女堂遺址。那天上午,6年前退休返鄉安度晚年的建陽市農業局原局長彭利榮,用遺憾夾雜親切的語氣告訴我,靠南一排是房間,66年前,他就是在這座節女堂一間破屋里出生的。據老彭介紹,廚房里原來還有幾口用來裝飲用水的方形大石缸,如今全都不翼而飛了。只剩下三個或埋在地里、或裸露在外的石雕構件。我們把幾個石構件挖出來,用水洗刷干凈后,但見香爐正面雕刻的騰龍圖案,栩栩如生,清晰可見。可惜,文字較小,且已風化,只能識別“乾隆”等少量幾個字。由此推斷,這座節女堂,至少有200多年歷史了……

            節女堂的性質,與“貞潔牌坊”差不多,是古代為了鼓勵寡婦為亡夫守節而專門設立的祠堂。修建、創辦節女堂的根本目的,是要讓那些所謂不守婦道、不守規矩的女人,通過入“堂”管教,懂得“規矩”、恪守“婦道”。當我帶著對早已消失的節女堂,以及那些曾經在這里生活過的節女們縷縷懷想,告別這個特殊的遺址后,對舊時節女的同情、對封建禮教的憤慨,久久縈繞在我的腦海里——封建時代,除了“節女”,還有“節婦”什么的。所謂“節婦”,指堅守貞節,丈夫死后不改嫁的婦女;而“節女”,乃封建禮教上指婦女守節或殉節。

            “吃人”的封建社會,婦女死了丈夫,只有立志不嫁,堅守貞操,直到老死,才有“女德”,才是“守節”。唐代詩人張籍在《節婦吟•寄東平李司空師道》中寫道:“君知妾有夫,贈妾雙明珠。感君纏綿意,系在紅羅襦。妾家高樓連苑起,良人執戟明光里。知君用心如日月,事夫誓擬同生死。還君明珠雙淚垂,何不相逢未嫁時。”千百年來,在儒家禮教中,婦女必須“從一而終”——不但丈夫生前要貞節,死后還得守節。據史料記載,表彰節婦之舉,一直延續到民國初期。它在給相關家族帶來榮譽的同時,給當事婦女帶來巨大的痛苦。這是何等的荒唐,這是何等的不公!

            一九一八年七月,魯迅先生在《我之節烈觀》中,旗幟鮮明地對“節烈論”痛加批判。他一針見血地指出:“道德這事,必須普遍,人人應做,人人能行,又于自他兩利,才有存在的價值。現在所謂節烈,不特除開男子……,所以決不能認為道德”,“節烈這兩個字,從前也算是男子的美德,所以有過‘節士’,‘烈士’的名稱。”現在“表彰‘節烈’,卻是專指女子,并無男子在內。”同時,擲地有聲的質疑:“節烈是否道德?”“多妻主義的男子,有無表彰節烈的資格?”

            由此聯想到此前遼寧撫順市傳統文化學校開設“女德班”奇聞。在一段網傳視頻中,有的“女德班”學員淚流滿面,跪地、磕頭、懺悔自己的“罪過”。而授課老師卻振振有詞:“無論丈夫說啥,都要說是,好,馬上”,“女人就不應該往上走,做什么女強人,就應該在最底層,女強人下場都不好。”而某“女德班”的“著名語錄”是,“打不還手,罵不還口,逆來順受,絕不離婚”,“如果要做女強人,你就得切掉身體的女性特征,放棄所有女性特點”。這樣奇葩的“女德班”并不是個例。

            如此“女德班”,這等培訓法,哪里是傳統文化教育,分明是變相扭曲心靈。不過,開設“女德班”并非什么新鮮事,媒體早就報導過,只是未能引起社會和輿論關注罷了:2013928日,在孔子誕辰2564年這天,“以儒家思想為辦學特色”的重慶信息技術職業學院舉辦的“首屆中華女德班開學典禮”,吸引了人們的眼球;2014921日,中國之聲報“打不還手,罵不還口,逆來順受,絕不離婚”,這16個字,被形容為學堂倡導的“女德”四項基本原則。目前這類“女德班”從北京、山東、河北,一直綿延到陜西、廣東和海南……

            早在1954年,我國就將“男女平等”寫進了憲法,60多年過去了,為什么還有人熱衷于舉辦歧視女性的“女德班”?“女德班”的性質,與女子師范、女子學校等截然不同,它灌輸的是“守婦道”之類的“德”。單從這一點,就不難看出帶有明顯的男尊女卑成分。現在,遼寧的“女德班”被“叫停”了,其他地方的“女德班”是否還冠冕堂皇地照辦不誤?

              不錯,傳統文化應當弘揚。然而,時代不同了,社會進步了,對儒家理學等“歷史遺產”,既不能盲目拿來,更不能全盤照搬,而要“取其精華,去其糟粕”,在批判的基礎上繼承和吸收。可是,近年來偏偏有人打著弘揚傳統文化的旗號,干著為封建思想招魂的事情。聽任其回潮、蔓延下去,后果要比興辦“女德班”嚴重得多。

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