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          1. 歡迎來到華中雜文網!
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            冬儲

            2017-11-21 14:03:27作者:謝汝平打印訂閱
            [導讀]在農村老家,父母還會貯存一些自己親手種的菜,每次回家,都會塞滿汽車后備廂帶走,仿佛父母是我們永遠的菜窖。

            冬天很多時候在零度以下,從夏天角度看,冬天相當于天然冷庫,能有這樣適宜儲存食物的氣溫多好。可真到了冬天,人們又不滿意,畢竟,天然冷庫不是真正的冷庫,人們無法隨心所欲地調節氣溫。

                為了應付食物相對匱乏的漫長冬季,以及春節、元宵節等傳統節日,人們需要貯存大量食物。特別是從前,貯存、運輸條件差,讓食物保持新鮮不腐需要一定的技術。對于魚、肉等食品,人們一般選擇腌制、臘制、風干等方法,而蔬菜類過冬儲存,倒是比較棘手的事。

                大白菜是冬天百姓餐桌上的主角,對于它的冬儲顯得尤為重要。剛入冬時,大白菜還留在地里,也最新鮮。待到結點薄冰,地里的大白菜就要進行遮蓋,一般蓋些蘆葦柴,上面再放層稻草即可。這樣既保溫又透氣,不像塑料布遮蓋容易腐爛。待到下雪或者結厚冰時,室外氣溫很低,就要把大白菜砍下來,運回家。記得小時候,我家砍下的大白菜分為兩種方法處理。一是就地挖個菜窖子,把大白菜一棵棵站著放進去,上面用樹枝塑料布覆蓋,再填上一層薄土。讓大白菜處在密閉的地下,可以保存很長時間,過年時起出白菜,仍然新鮮得很。這種貯存不能經常打開,不然就達不到效果,因而不適用平時需要食用的大白菜。所以第二種方法冬儲大白菜就是曬,把外面的菜皮曬得半干,搬回屋里碼起來,也不易腐爛。但是過段時間就要搬出去曬曬太陽,如此折騰幾次,損耗頗大。

                與大白菜相比,紅薯的冬儲要麻煩且效果差許多。在以前,糧食產量不高的農村,紅薯種植廣泛,成為家鄉人民的主要食物。我記得那時每家都有一個大大的紅薯窖,在孩子看來,不亞于一座小房子。紅薯怕凍易爛,但還得透氣不然容易發酵。因此紅薯窖挖好大坑放入紅薯后,上面還要起個屋頂,蓋上土再遮上稻草保暖。紅薯窖都留有洞口,便于取食紅薯,開始時用農具即可掏出,隨著紅薯儲量減少,需要人進窖去取。這個差使大都落在我的頭上,因為我瘦小,爬進爬出很方便,我也樂于助父母做些事,但窖內污濁的帶有腐爛紅薯味的空氣,現在想來都不舒服。

                冬季貯存的蘿卜、葫蘿卜等,除了腌制蘿卜干,也有采用窖藏的方法,但跟菜窖紅薯窖略有不同。蘿卜產量少,窖子也小,一般挖個土坑,把蘿卜放進去,然后填土成實心。這樣的蘿卜新鮮,挖出來時上面長著嫩嫩的蘿卜纓,下面蘿卜須細而長,但卻基本不影響蘿卜的品質。而蓮藕、慈姑等水里生長的蔬菜,直接存放也可保存很長時間,如在需要食用時再去塘里田里挖,不僅新鮮,還省卻貯存的麻煩。

                如今一般人很少考慮冬儲的事,菜場超市天天都有新鮮食物蔬菜供應。但在農村老家,父母還會貯存一些自己親手種的菜,每次回家,都會塞滿汽車后備廂帶走,仿佛父母是我們永遠的菜窖。


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