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            漢字改革瑣談

            2017-11-07 09:38:49作者:唐匯寅打印訂閱
            [導讀]漢字改革未有窮期,方便大眾乃第一要義。

            網傳,一臺灣人談大陸漢字改革,語驚四座:“漢字簡化后,親不見,愛無心,產不生,厰空空,麵無麥,運無車,導無道,兒無首,飛單翼,有雲無雨,開関無門,鄉里無郎。……”筆者一百度,此話原說是一學者之言,足見此乃栽贓于人,借以攻擊中國大陸的文字簡化,并進行意識形態的丑化。

            眾所周知,漢字因書寫與讀音脫節,是世界上最難學的文字之一。而拉丁文“只要認識28個字母,學一點拼法和寫法,除懶蟲和低能外,就誰都能寫得出,看得懂了。”大眾(化名倉頡)創造出來的漢字,其構成法為“象形、會意、形聲”等六書字形規則,但后來已跟此規則漸行漸遠。“口、日”的象形本當是圓形,為了規范書寫只能用方塊。“滑”與“海”的諧聲也不是“骨”與“每”了。故魯迅說:“古人是并不愚蠢的,他們早就將形象改得簡單,遠離了寫實。篆字圓折,還有圖畫的余痕,從隸書到現在的楷書,和形象就天差地遠。”“意義和形象離開了關系”的“諧聲”,“已經是記音了”。

            在漢字的發展進程中,筆畫雖偶有增加的情形,但簡化卻是主要傾向,即用筆畫少、結構簡單的字取代筆畫多、結構復雜的繁體字。古代的甲骨文、篆書、隸書、楷書都有簡體字。宋元時期平民社會流傳的一種通俗簡體字,如“個、號、門、萬”等,被稱為“俗體字”,雖遭許多文人鄙視,卻在民間記賬、契約、書信,甚至話本小說里應用極廣。虞世南、王羲之等書法家將這些群眾創造的簡體字書寫出來,同樣好看。

            五四運動倡導白話文時,也提出了簡化漢字以提高識字率和大眾文化水平。1934年,語言學家錢玄同受政府委托主持編選《簡體字譜》。1935年8月國民政府教育部公布了《第一批簡體字表》,共收錄了324個民間流傳最廣的俗體字、古字和草書字,并準備編入小學課本。可惜接踵而至的抗日戰爭使這次簡化字運動夭折了,但它樹立的“述而不作”原則成了日后簡化漢字的指導思想。蔣介石退守臺灣后也曾于1952年再度提出文字改革。1956年1月28日,大陸通過《簡化字總表》,推行簡化漢字運動,國民黨當局始將簡化漢字斥為“共黨陰謀”“忘本賣國”等。此后漢字簡化方案在臺灣被賦予政治色彩而永久擱置,不了了之。

            大陸簡化漢字按照“約定俗成、穩步前進”的方針,大部分沒有脫離六書傳統,如“飛”更像鳥展翅凌空;“運、斃、犧牲”等為形聲;“糶、糴、塵、筆”等則會意;“兒、幣”等脫胎于繁體字的一部分,且古已有之。簡化漢字減少了筆畫數,由原來繁體字的平均筆畫16畫變為了10.3畫;基本統一了各種偏僻的異字、訛字,減少了通用漢字的字數,降低了記憶和書寫難度,協助減少了一億文盲。

            漢字簡化也順應了時代潮流。今天的“運”已由車與多種交通工具共擔,且今日之車已非一根軸插入兩個輪轂的古“車”,“運無車”何須驚訝。“開、關”也不限于“門”,我們更常開關的是電鈕、手機、煤氣灶等等。“親不見”亦無妨,遠隔重洋雖不常見,卻有微信相通,牛郎織女不也“兩情若是久長時,又豈在朝朝暮暮”嗎?以當今之常識來識別象形、會意的繁體字,迥然瞎子摸象胡編亂想也。

            至于“國粹家當作寶貝的漢字”,我們依然可以保留它的文化內涵和審美價值。正如不必大家都懂甲骨文一樣,古漢字只能留給專家作為專利,“茴香豆”的四種寫法讓孔乙己承包,大眾則無須把有限的精力和時間耗費在吃力的文字學習中。“大眾,是有文學,要文學的,但決不該為文學做犧牲,要不然,他的荒謬和為了保存漢字,要十分之八的中國人做文盲來殉難的活圣賢就并不兩樣。”

            愚以為漢字簡化還有很多工作可做,許多筆畫復雜的字仍有化繁為簡的余地,有些多音字可省去不必要的讀音。如“茜”讀qian即可,用于人名時又讀xi豈非多找一事?有人建議將用于定語后的“的”跟用于狀語后的“地”合二為一,讓“地”回歸土地,只留一個di音。此議未嘗不可,用拼音打字的電腦就很忌諱這一繁文縟節,常常不分“的、地”。

            當然,最終定論須以專家為準。不過,專家也不能被因襲的包袱束縛手腳,還得多為大眾著想。畢竟歷史發展的趨勢毋庸置疑:漢字改革未有窮期,方便大眾乃第一要義。正所謂“一要生存,二要溫飽,三要發展,茍有阻礙這前途者,無論是古是今,是人是鬼,是《三墳》《五典》、百宋千元、天球河圖、金人玉佛、祖傳丸散、秘制膏丹,全都踏倒他。”


                                 2017/8/30于洈水河畔

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