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            從漢靈帝賣官說起

            2017-11-07 09:34:42作者:唐開云打印訂閱
            [導讀]對于當今的貪官污吏,盡管他們比靈帝更要有“靈性”,賣官鬻爵的手段更隱蔽更高明,但隨著反腐倡廉、依法治國力度的加大和干部人事制度改革的深入,貪官污吏必將受到黨紀國法的嚴厲懲處,成克杰的被槍決,就是一個耀眼的信號。

            靈帝是東漢末年的一位無道昏君,然而他在聚斂錢財方面卻顯出了幾分“靈性”。

            靈帝的“靈性”,首先表現在他的“創造性”上。賣官鬻爵是最“來菜”的事兒,漢桓帝在161年就開此先河:“占賣關內侯、虎賁、羽林、緹騎、營士、五大夫,錢各有差。”靈帝比起他的叔父來,更具“創新精神”,他除賣軍職外,還出賣上自公卿(相當于現在的部級以上),下至郎吏(相當于現在的縣級)等行政官職,并各有定價:“公千萬、卿五百萬”。因為地方官是“實權派”,是“肥差”,定價更高:兩千石(郡守,相當于現在的廳級以上),售價兩千萬;四百石(縣長、縣丞,相當于現在的縣級),售價四百萬。桓帝賣官雖然“錢各有差”,但差多差少,并未明晰,不像靈帝這樣明碼標價,具有規范性。

            靈帝的“靈性”,其次表現在他的靈活性上。雖然有了全國統一的官價,但在實際操作中仍可因地制宜,靈活掌握:“隨縣好丑,豐約有賈。”即根據所管轄地區的區位優劣和肥瘠程度,分別議定。如果你想買到自己想要的“烏紗帽”,而又一時拿不出那么多錢,怎么辦呢?靈帝采取更為靈活的措施是:可以賒賬,上任后再加倍繳納。于是,有很多人不必先掏腰包就可以圓自己的做官夢。

            靈帝的“靈性”還在于,為了加快賣官的節奏,他經常調換官吏,甚至一個地方一個月就調換好幾人,而每次換動官吏都要繳納價格不菲的“助軍錢”、“修宮錢”,大郡數至二三千萬。此外,他還將地方上繳國庫的各種租稅,抽一份繳納宮中,謂之“導行費”。由此可見,在賣官鬻爵上,桓帝的智商的確遠遠遜色于靈帝。

            巨額錢財到手后,往哪兒存放最保險?靈帝大約從“狡兔三窟”中受到啟發,他下令在西園建造了一座“萬金堂”作為自己的“小金庫”;并派人到河間(他的老家)為他買田地、建豪宅;還把錢分散存在小黃門和常侍(太監)家中,每家數千萬。可見靈帝的深謀遠慮。

            上梁不正下梁歪。靈帝帶頭賣官,使得大小官吏紛紛仿效,全國上下賣官鬻爵成風。買官者為保本求利,更加肆無忌憚地搜刮民脂民膏。百姓不堪重負,于是紛紛揭竿而起,終于爆發了黃巾大起義,加速了東漢王朝的滅亡。

            沒想到歷史進入二十世紀末,靈帝仍“陰魂不散”:江西廣豐原縣委書記鄭元盛在位3年,就賣出“烏紗帽”45頂。“要發財到廣東,要買官到廣豐。”這首順口溜就是對此風的真實寫照。山東泰安市原市委書記胡建學在位5年,利用干部職務晉升和調整之機,以錢封官定職,先后收受賄賂折合人民幣60多萬元。其時在當地也流傳著這樣的順口溜:“副科升正科,得花一萬多;正科升副縣,得花四五萬。”原鹽城市委副書記、市人大常委會主任祁崇岳在位期間,竟有近60名買官換位者向他“進貢”后如愿以償,他視求購職務的高低開出不同的價碼:起價5000元,高的4萬元以上。成克杰從1994年初至1997年10月,為3名縣級干部提升或調動,就獲人民幣28.8萬元、美金3000元。只是他沒有像靈帝那樣把聚斂的錢藏匿于“小黃門”和老家,而是存放在他的情婦李平那里。

            從桓帝、靈帝到胡建學、成克杰,賣官鬻爵現象何以香火相續、歷久不衰?究其原因,主要有兩點:一是權力高度集中。對于家天下的封建帝王來說,“普天之下,莫非王土,率土之濱,莫非王臣”,官員升遷全由“奉天承運”的“王”們說了算。本應是“人民的公仆”的胡建學、成克杰者流,之所以能傳承靈帝的衣缽,同樣是由于權力高度集中在他們手上,名為“集體決策”,實則“一把手”一錘定音。二是對權力缺乏有效的監督。在封建時代,誰敢在“太歲頭上動土”?那時頂多只有個別大夫偶爾斗膽進諫而已。比如對貪得無厭的靈帝,他的近臣“中常侍”呂強曾上書進諫,規勸“萬歲爺”提防“好獻其私”的“阿媚之臣”。結果是“書奏,不省。”呂強只好干哈氣。胡建學、成克杰之流賣官受賄所以得逞,也是由于缺乏有效的監督,因為監督者的“烏紗帽”正握在他們手中!靈帝的橫征暴斂,逼得人民不得不采取暴力手段;對于當今的貪官污吏,盡管他們比靈帝更要有“靈性”,賣官鬻爵的手段更隱蔽更高明,但隨著反腐倡廉、依法治國力度的加大和干部人事制度改革的深入,貪官污吏必將受到黨紀國法的嚴厲懲處,成克杰的被槍決,就是一個耀眼的信號。

             

            (原載2001年4月11日《黃石日報》)

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